To examine associations between peer crowds and smoking, Pearson chi-square tests were used in bivariate analyses between the crowds, tobacco-related attitudes, and smoking.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptHealth Promot Pract. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 July 01.Lee et al.PageTo assess the independent relationships between peer crowds and smoking, we calculated odds ratios using <a href="https://www.medchemexpress.com/ICG-001.html">ICG-001
supplier</a> logistic regression predicting having smoked in at least 1 of the past 30 days while controlling for education status, sex, age, and study area. A study area variable was included to <a href="https://www.medchemexpress.com/Cediranib.html">Cediranib
Autophagy</a> control for community-specific effects and potential selection bias due to unmeasured differences between the Norfolk and Richmond areas. Since there were more female respondents (71.1 ), a sampling weight was calculated based on each respondent's probability of selection based on gender in logistic regression analyses.Author Manuscript RESULTS Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptTwenty-two percent of respondents had smoked in the past 30 days. Of the three peer crowds, "hip hop" was the most common with 40 percent of the respondents reporting smoking, followed by "Mainstream" with 23 percent, and "Preppy" with 13 percent. There were a total of 133 (23 percent) of respondents who scored equally in two of the groups and categorized as indeterminate. Having a high proportion of friends who smoke cigarillos was comparatively higher (22 percent) than having a high proportion of friends who smoke cigarettes (15 percent). Agreement with the four tobacco attitudes ranged from about 45 percent to 79 percent, with the least agreement for desire to be involved in tobacco control and the most agreement for the importance of living a tobacco-free lifestyle. We hypothesized that identification with some peer crowds is a predictor of smoking among Black young people. To assess this hypothesis we used bivariate and multivariate methods. The results of bivariate cross-tabulations between crowd types and tobacco variables are reported in Table 1. The association with crowd identity was statistically significant with all of the tobacco-related variables at the p < .05 level. Across all of the tobacco-related variables identifying with the "hip hop" crowd was significantly associated with higher smoking risk. The differences between the crowd identity types were more pronounced in the bivariate associations with peer smoking. The percentages of "hip hop" youth reporting that most or all of their friends smoke cigarettes were much higher than other crowd identity types; more than twice those for both "Preppy" and "Mainstream." In terms of tobacco attitudes, "hip hop" youth consistently and significantly had the lowest percentages of agreement across each of the four anti-tobacco attitudes. The odds ratios from a multivariate logistic regression model predicting having smoked in the past 30 days are reported in Table 2. These results show identification with the "hip hop" peer crowd increased the odds of having smoked by 97 percent (compared to "Mainstream") whe.Tant to me," and "it is important to me to live a tobacco-free lifestyle." Response choices were presented in a Likert scale with five categories. Responses in the strongest two positive categories of agreement ("a lot" and "a great deal") were categorized as strong agreement for each item. Data Analysis We calculated descriptive statistics to describe the sample of Black youth.