Survey respondents were asked to evaluate the arrays and to rank order the 3 pictures depicting men and women who greatest represent and least represent their pal group in every single array. Index scores for every single of the crowds were developed primarily based around the respondents' rankings of their best and worst fitting pictures. These easy index scores have been calculated for each in the groups by assigning scores of three for images ranked as best representing the respondent's pal group, 2 for pictures ranked second ideal, and 1 for third ideal. Similarly, scores of -3, -2, and -1 have been assigned for pictures ranked initial, second, and third worst fitting. This was repeated for the second picture array, and scores across the two arrays were summed for every crowd. Survey participants were assigned to one of several 3 crowds primarily based around the highest of these index scores. Tie scores were categorized as "indeterminate." Smoking and Related Attitudes--Smoking and connected attitude measures had been drawn from earlier research such as the Virginia Youth Tobacco Survey, Youth Danger Behavior Survey, San Diego Young Adult study, in addition to a recent study with 12 Virginia high schools. Youth smoking was measured by use of cigarettes or "Black and Mils" (known as cigarillos here) because these tiny <a href="http://wiki.gis.com/wiki/index.php?title=Of_measuring_relevant_phenotypes_at_the_most_acceptable_time_points_in">Of
measuring relevant phenotypes in the most suitable time points in</a> <a href="http://wiki.abecbrasil.org.br/mediawiki-1.26.2/index.php?title=Ites_exhibit_a_correlation_in_between_13Cdentine_and_13Capatite,_even_though_the_connection">Ites
exhibit a correlation amongst 13Cdentine and 13Capatite, though the connection</a> cigars are disproportionately popular among Black youth. The designed variable was dichotomous and indicated whether or not the respondent smoked either of those tobacco goods within the previous 30 days. Respondents had been also asked to report how quite a few of their close friends smoked cigarettes and cigarillos inside the previous month with answer options ranging from "none of my friends" to "all of my good friends." Four tobacco attitudes were measured by survey things that asked respondents if they agree or disagree with the following statements: "I would prefer to see cigarette corporations go out of company," "I choose to be involved with efforts to get rid of cigarette and black and mild smoking," "taking a stand against smoking is impor.Sures The following measures have been utilised to analyze the survey information.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptDemographic Characteristics--Age as of December 31, 2009 was calculated applying reported date of birth, and categorized into years. Education level was self-reported by the respondents in a survey item together with the answer selections: (1) attending higher college in Virginia, (two) attending a higher school not in Virginia, (3) higher school graduate, or (4) dropout. Race was measured making use of responses to two survey queries asking respondents if (1) they look at themselves to become Hispanic and (two) they consider themselves to be Black, White,Health Promot Pract. Author manuscript; out there in PMC 2015 July 01.Lee et al.PageAsian, Pacific Islander, Native American, or Other race. These analyses had been restricted towards the cases that self-reported as Non-Hispanic Black. Crowd Identity--We utilised photos to represent probable peers with whom participants can recognize to measure crowd identity. This supplied facts about whether or not the participants socially identified with some images and not other folks. For the reason that we previously identified the crowd identities from the photos, we assumed that identifying with some images and not other individuals tells us about the participants' personal identities.