N controlling for demographic <a href="http://wiki.kcioko.ru/index.php?title=Ites_exhibit_a_correlation_in_between_13Cdentine_and_13Capatite,_although_the_connection">Ites
exhibit a correlation <a href="http://wiki.gis.com/wiki/index.php?title=Of_measuring_relevant_phenotypes_at_the_most_acceptable_time_points_in">Of
measuring relevant phenotypes in the most suitable time points in</a> amongst 13Cdentine and 13Capatite, although the connection</a> factors and location (OR = 1.97, p < .05)..DISCUSSIONThese results support our hypothesis that crowd identity is associated with smoking among Black young people. While we used a weight to account for the disproportionate number of females in our sample this may affect the generalizability of our findings. The recruitment method used resulted in a conveni.N controlling for demographic factors and location (OR = 1.97, p < .05)..DISCUSSIONThese results support our hypothesis that crowd identity is associated with smoking among Black young people. This supports research on youth crowds that has consistently found peer crowd identification is associated with smoking and other risk behaviors, suggesting that these crowds represent social types with distinct health behavior norms and that they may function as a source of development and reinforcement of risk behaviors (Pokhrel et al.,Health Promot Pract. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 July 01.Lee et al.Page2010). Our findings also extend this research to show that using peer crowd identity can be used to further refine health campaigns targeting high-risk subgroups within a health disparity population. The method outlined in this study could be used by campaign developers in formative research projects to segment disparity populations and identify subgroups at high-risk. Health messaging and social marketing programs can use information about peer crowd identity types to craft messaging, social brands, and social marketing efforts to specifically appeal to and effectively communicate with high-risk subgroups and maximize the efficient use of resources. Health disparity researchers need to understand this potential use of crowd identity to aid in the development of interventions, particularly among vulnerable populations of young people. Our results are consistent with prior research showing that tobacco companies developed marketing strategies to target Black young people using hip hop culture and music (Cruz, Wright, Crawford, 2010; Hafez Ling, 2006) as well as observations that rap artists are frequently shown smoking cigarettes or cigars in the media (Gardiner 2001) and that rap music depicts substance use more than other musical genres (Primack, Dalton, Carroll, Agarwal, Fine, 2008). Tobacco control programs targeted to specific youth cultures are needed to address and counter these influences (Poland et al., 2006). These findings may help public health professionals to understand the cultural context of smoking for Black young people and could be used to guide the development of tobacco control interventions that are salient from their perspective. In addition, findings suggest that peer crowd identity is associated with anti-tobacco industry attitudes. The hip hop crowd had the least anti-industry attitudes compared to the other crowds. De-normalizing the tobacco industry and its products may be a promising way to reach these youth. Exploratory research shows that using tobacco documents to reveal the exploitative nature of tobacco industry marketing aimed at Blacks may be an effective way to encourage cessation and discourage smoking (Yerger, Daniel, Malone, 2005). Taken together, this growing body of research suggests that rather than being uniquely resistant to such messaging, this subgroup may present an opportunity for health advocates to develop tailored messages informing them of the tobacco industry's use of hip hop culture in marketing tobacco products to Blacks.. The results of this study should be interpreted in light of its limitations.